Asian witchcraft refers to any or all types of witchcraft practiced in Asia. The belief in witchcraft and its practice seem to have been widespread in the past. Both in ancient Egypt and in Babylonia it played a conspicuous part, as existing records plainly show.
If a man has put a spell upon another man and it is not justified, he upon whom the spell is laid shall go to the holy river; into the holy river shall he plunge.
Gumiho: Legend of the Nine-Tailed Fox
If the holy river overcome him and he is drowned, the man who put the spell upon him shall take possession of his house. If the holy river declares him innocent and he remains unharmed the man who laid the spell shall be put to death. He that plunged into the river shall take possession of the house of him who laid the spell upon him.
In the Tanakhreferences to witchcraft are frequent, and the strong condemnations of such practices which we read there do not seem to be based so much upon the supposition of fraud as upon the " abomination " of belief in the magic in itself.
Verses such as Book of Deuteronomy and Book of Exodus "Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live" provided scriptural justification for Christian witch-hunters in the early modern period. The Bible provides some evidence that these commandments were enforced under the Hebrew kings :. And Saul disguised himself, and put on other raimentand he went, and two men with him, and they came to the woman by night: and he said, I pray theedivine unto me by the familiar spiritand bring me him up, whom I shall name unto thee.
And the woman said unto him, Behold, thou knowest what Saul hath done, how he hath cut off those that have familiar spirits, and the wizardsout of the land: wherefore then layest thou a snare for my life, to cause me to die? The New Testament condemns the practice as an abominationjust as the Old Testament had Epistle to the Galatianscompared with the Book of Revelation ; ; and Acts of the Apostles ; Divination and magic in Islam encompass a wide range of practices, including black magicwarding off the evil eye, the production of amulets and other magical equipment, evocationcleromancyastrology and physiognomy.
Muslims, followers of the religion of Islam, do commonly believe in the existence of magic and black magic sihrand explicitly forbid the practice of it. Sihr is the word for "black magic" in Arabic. The best known reference to magic in Islam is in surah al-Falaqwhich is a prayer to ward off black magic.
Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of the Dawn From the mischief of created things; From the mischief of Darkness as it overspreads; From the mischief of those who practise secret arts; And from the mischief of the envious one as he practises envy. Qurantranslation by YusufAli. And they follow that which the devils falsely related against the kingdom of Solomon.
Solomon disbelieved not; but the devils disbelieved, teaching mankind sorcery and that which was revealed to the two angels in BabelHarut and Marut. Nor did they the two angels teach it to anyone till they had said: We are only a temptation, therefore disbelieve not in the guidance of Allah. And from these two angels people learn that by which they cause division between man and wife; but they injure thereby no-one save by Allah's leave.
And they learn that which harmeth them and profiteth them not. And surely they do know that he who trafficketh therein will have no happy portion in the Hereafter; and surely evil is the price for which they sell their souls, if they but knew.
Disbelief in the miracles of the Prophets is considered an act of disbelief; belief in the miracles of any given pious individual is not. Neither are regarded as magic, but as signs of Allah at the hands of those close to him that occur by his will and his alone.
Muslim practitioners commonly seek the help of the jinn in magic singular jinni. It is a common belief that jinns can possess a human, thus requiring exorcism.
The belief in jinn in general is part of the Muslim faith. Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj narrated the Prophet said: "Allah created the angels from light, created the jinn from the pure flame of fire, and Adam from that which was described to you i. Students of the history of religion have linked several magical practices in Islam with pre-Islamic Turkish and East African customs.
Most notable of these customs is the zar.Chinese Stories Quotes Worship Resources. Japanese Stories Inari Resources. That's not what they meant Common misperceptions about fox spirits. Graves, roofs, and your own living room Fox abodes.
Where next? A quick guide to the best fox resources. Whether she appears as maiden, wife, or succubus, the kumiho's sole goals are power and death. She is the only kind of fox that kills with her own hands, and also the only kind of fox that eats her prey. La Shure, Charles, " Kumiho ". In Encyclopedia Mythica. Mayer, Frederick J. In Lair of the Shebitch. A thorough discussion of the kumiho, with considerable detail and references to Korean stories.
In Meta English. On The Kitsune Page. Zong In-Sob. Folk Tales from Korea. Elizabeth, NJ: Hollym International.
The Fox with Nine Tails. A film about a kumiho who must have sex with human men in order to become human herself. Directed by Park Heon-Su. A horror movie by Young Man Kang. The details of this movie are so vague that I can't even tell if it's finished, and Kang's own web page doesn't go into any detail. The Unwritten Rules of Fox Spirits.
Foxes in popular culture, films and literature
Folktales " The Fox Sister ".In East Asian folklore, foxes are depicted as a familiar spirit possessed of magic powers. These foxes are depicted as mischievous, usually tricking other people, with the ability to disguise themselves as a beautiful woman. Although the specifics of the tales vary, these fox spirits can usually shapeshift, often taking the form of beautiful young women who attempt to seduce men, whether for mere mischief or to consume their bodies or spirits.
Nine-tailed foxes appear in Chinese folklore, literature, and mythology, in which, depending on the tale can be a good or a bad omen. During the Han dynasty, the development of ideas about interspecies transformation had taken place in Chinese culture. The foxes there have four legs and nine tails. According to another version, it is located north of Sunrise Valley. In chapter 14 of the ShanhaijingGuo Pu had commented that the nine-tailed fox was an auspicious omen that appeared during times of peace.
There is a beast here whose form resembles a fox with nine tails. It makes a sound like a baby and is a man-eater. Whoever eats it will be protected against insect-poison gu. In a Tang Dynasty Story, Foxes could become humans by wearing a skull and worshipping the big dipper. They would try multiple skulls till they found one that fit without falling off. This resulted in Huizong ordering the destruction of all fox temples in Kaifeng.
The city was invaded the next day, and the dynasty fell after five months. Describing the transformation and other features of the fox, Guo Pu — made the following comment:. Such beings are able to know things at more than a thousand miles' distance; they can poison men by sorcery, or possess and bewilder them, so that they lose their memory and knowledge; and when a fox is thousand years old, it ascends to heaven and becomes a celestial fox.
The Youyang Zazu made a connection between nine-tailed foxes and the divine:. It serves in the Palace of the Sun and Moon and has its own fu talisman and a jiao ritual. It can transcend yin and yang. Popular fox worship during the Tang dynasty has been mentioned in a text entitled Hu Shen Fox gods :. They make offerings in their bedchambers to beg for their favor.
The foxes share people's food and drink. They do not serve a single master. At the time there was a figure of speech saying, 'Where there is no fox demon, no village can be established. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. London: Reaktion Books. Chinese mythology. Japanese folklore.The legend first originated centuries ago in China. Koreans view the gumiho as a purely evil creature. According to the legend, foxes that live a thousand years become gumihos. Gumihos transform themselves as beautiful women in order to seduce men and then, eat their livers or hearts depending on the legend.
There are many variations of this legend. Another states that if a gumiho can permanently remain human if it eats a liver per day for a thousand days, otherwise it will turn into bubbles. You are commenting using your WordPress.
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The term " foxy " in English "having the qualities of a fox" can also connote attractiveness, sexiness, or being red-haired. The term "to outfox " means "to beat in a competition of wits", similarly to "outguess", "outsmart", and "outwit".FPX vs G2 - Game 1 - Grand Finals S9 LoL Worlds 2019 - FunPlus Phoenix vs G2 eSports G1
In Dogon mythology, the fox  is reported to be either the trickster god of the desert, who embodies chaos  or a messenger for the gods. There is a Tswana riddle that says that "Phokoje go tsela o dithetsenya [Only the muddy fox lives] meaning that, in a philosophical sense, 'only an active person who does not mind getting muddy gets to progress in life. Kuma Lisa is a female fox from Bulgarian folklore and Russian folklore who usually plays the role of the trickster.
Kuma Lisa is encountered with another character known as Kumcho Vulcho - a wolf which is opposite to her and very often suffers from her tricks. In Scotlandthe trickster figure of the fox or tod in traditional Scots was represented as Lowrenceas in the Morall Fabillis of Robert Henryson. In Finnish mythologythe fox is depicted usually a cunning trickster, but seldom evil.
The fox, while weaker, in the end outsmarts both the evil and voracious wolf and the strong but not-so-cunning bear. It symbolizes the victory of intelligence over both malevolence and brute strength. In Northern Finland the fox is said to conjure the aurora borealis while it runs through the snowy hills. An Occitan song dating from the Middle Ages, Ai Vis lo Lopfeatures a wolf lo lopa fox lo rainard and a hare lebre dancing and circling a tree. It has been suggested that the three animals represent the King, Lord and Church who were responsible for taxation the lyrics go on to refer to money gained over the year and how nothing was left after seeing 'the wolf, the fox and the hare'.
In Europein the Middle Ages and Renaissancefoxes, which were associated with wiliness and fraudulent behavior, were sometimes burned as symbols of the Devil. In early Mesopotamian mythologythe fox is one of the sacred animals of the goddess Ninhursag. The fox acts as her messenger. The Bible 's Song of Solomon includes a well-known verse "Catch for us the foxes, the little foxes that ruin the vineyards, our vineyards that are in bloom" which had been given many interpretations over the centuries by Jewish and Christian Bible commentators.
To the Jewish sage Matteya ben Hereshof the 2nd century CE, is attributed the maxim: "Meet each man with friendly greeting; be the tail among lions rather than the head among foxes". In Chinese, Japanese, and Korean folklores, foxes huli jing in China, kitsune in Japan, and kumiho in Korea are powerful spirits that are known for their highly mischievous and cunning nature, and they often take on the form of female humans to seduce men.
In contemporary Chinese, the word huli jing is often used to describe a mistress negatively in an extramarital affair. In Shinto of Japan, kitsune sometimes helps people as an errand of their deity, Inari. The Moche people of ancient Peru worshiped animals and often depicted the fox in their art. The fox would not ever use physical attack, only mental. In the Uncle Remus collection of 19th-century African-American folktales adapted and compiled by Joel Chandler Harris" Br'er Fox " is a major character, often acting as the antagonist towards the stories' main character, " Br'er Rabbit ".
The Medieval Norman adventurer Robert Guiscard was nicknamed "Robert the Fox" as well as the Resourcefulthe Cunningthe Wily - underlining the identification of such qualities with foxes. The Italian sociologist and economist Vilfredo Pareto — in his Trattato di Sociologia Generale developed the concept of an elite social classwhich he divided into cunning 'foxes' and violent 'lions'.
In his view of society, the power constantly passes from the 'foxes' to the 'lions' and vice versa. The words fox and foxy have become slang in English-speaking societies for an individual most often female with sex appeal. The word vixenwhich is normally the common name for a female fox, is also used to describe an attractive woman—although, in the case of humans, "vixen" tends to imply that the woman in question has a few nasty qualities.Originating in Chinese myths dating back centuries before being introduced to Korean mythology,  the Korean kumiho shares many similarities to the Chinese huli jing and the Japanese kitsune.
As the kumiho and other versions of the nine-tailed fox myths and folklores originated from China, they all have a similar concept. All explain fox spirits as being the result of great longevity or the accumulation of energy, said to be foxes who have lived for a thousand years, and give them the power of shapeshifting, usually appearing in the guise of a woman. However, while huli jing and kitsune are often depicted with ambiguous moral compasses, possibly good or bad, the kumiho is almost always treated as a malignant figure who feasts on human flesh.
In later literature, kumiho were often depicted as bloodthirsty half-fox, half-human creatures that wandered cemeteries at night, digging human hearts out from graves. The fairy tale The Fox Sister depicts a fox spirit preying on a family for their livers. However, according to Gyuwon Sahwakumiho is described as an auspicious fox spirit with a book in its mouth. Considering the text is thought to be written insome speculate that the modern violent image of kumiho is influenced during the Japanese occupation in Korea.
Nevertheless, foxes often contained a negative image during the Koryo Dynasty Shin Don was described as an old fox spirit due to his love for women and drinks despite his being a buddhist monksuggesting two different views could have co-existed in ancient Korea. Taiping Guangji claims Silla worshipped foxes as sacred beings.
According to Korean mythology, the yeowoo guseul provides power to the kumiho and knowledge and intelligence to people if they can steal and swallow one. The kumiho can absorb humans' energy with it. The method of absorbing energy with the "yeowoo guseul" resembles a "deep kiss" i.
The kumiho sends the yeowoo guseul into people's mouths and then retakes it with their tongues. If that person swallows the yeowoo guseul, however, and then observes "sky, land, and people", each observation gives the observer preternatural knowledge.
But the person fails to watch the "sky" in most tales, so they get a special ability but not the most important one. Most legends state that while a kumiho was capable of changing its appearance, there is still something persistently foxy about it i. Although they have the ability to change forms, the true identity of a kumiho was said to be zealously guarded by the kumiho themselves. Some tales say that if a kumiho abstains from killing and eating humans for a thousand days, it can become human.
Much like changelingswerewolves or vampires in Western lore, there are always variations on the myth depending on the liberties that each story takes with the legend.A while ago, I was riding around Sowol-gil on the slope of Namsan when I stumbled across what appeared to be a museum on mythical Korean monsters.
For instance, the ancient Greeks had their minotaurs and cyclopes, the middle ages had elves and dwarves, every culture had dragons, and even the relatively young culture of North America has Bigfoot and Chupacabra.
Of course not in real life, but their legends live on in various forms. Korean legends characterise a variety of mythical creatures, ghosts, monsters, and dragons. Many are derived from Chinese legends, but with their own unique Korean spin.
The dokkaebi is a good place to start, as it was the focus of the museum I found up on Namsan. The image of the dokkaebi ranges between a demonic figure and a conventional troll, right down to the club.
They are said to have been transformed from inanimate objects, rather than the spirit of someone who has died. The dokkaebi is a mischievous creature, fond of practical jokes and games, but also known for rewarding good people. They are generally considered harmless, and have a penchant for challenging others to ssireum a Korean style of wrestling. If you ever find yourself in a match with a dokkaebi, remember never to push them from the left side, only from the right. According to some stories, they are easily beaten by hooking their leg, as they only have one of those.
Dokkaebi are endowed with a few magical items.
However, it cannot create the item out of thin air, thus obeying the Laws of Thermodynamics like a good little magic item; instead, the item is stolen from others.
So, not much different from any other club at the hands of a robber, from what I can tell. I guess owing to their love of games, the dokkaebi were a natural choice when it came to pick a mascot for the Red Devils, the official support group for the Korean national football team.
The face is modelled after Chiwoo Cheonwang, an influential figure in Korean and Chinese mythology who stood as a figure for victory and guardianship. It is romanised many different ways, with the Chinese version xiezhi sure to give any Scrabble player a heart attackand the more Korean haetae, or Haitai.
You might recognise that last one as the confectionery and beverage company of the same name. The haechi originally was an animal, sort of a hybrid between a lion and a watchdog, with a horn in the center of its head. Often symbolising justice, it was a common decoration of old Chinese and Joseon architecture. Said to eat fire, they are places at the entrances to buildings and palaces to prevent them from burning down.
A haechi statue sits in front of Gyeongbok Palace, protecting the nation from Yang energy and small children. They protect against not only fire natural disasters but also all disruption or disruptive change, with their large mouths said to latch onto the past, refusing to let go.
A gumiho is said to be a fox that has lived years, after which it gains the power of shapeshifting.